PATHOLOGY COMMON IN CARDIOLOGY
Cardiovascular diseases are caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels. Please find below a list of these conditions, for you know your description, symptoms, diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis.
Ischemic Heart Disease (ATERIOSCLEROSIS)
Caused by atherosclerosis, this disease prevents the heart from getting the blood needed. Usually asymptomatic and can be prevented. Find out how.
Ischemic heart disease is the disease caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, namely, responsible for providing blood to the heart muscle (infarction). Coronary Atherosclerosis is a slow process of formation of collagen and lipid accumulation (fat) and inflammatory cells (lymphocytes). These three reasons cause the narrowing (stenosis) coronary artery.
This process begins in the first decades of life, but has no symptoms until coronary artery stenosis is so severe that it causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and needs. In this case myocardial ischemia occurs (stable angina pectoris) or sudden occlusion of the artery thrombosis, causing a lack of oxygenation of the myocardium that ACS (inestable angina and myocardial infarction de agudo).
- More prevalent in older people.
- Occurs more in men, although often in women equals after menopause.
- History of premature coronary heart disease in the family.
- Increase in total cholesterol, especially LDL (bad).
- Decreased HDL cholesterol values (good).
- Diabetes mellitus.
Patients with multiple risk factors have the highest risk for obstructive coronary artery disease, and therefore, more chances of angina myocardial. The danger is even greater in individuals with the metabolic syndrome called, namely, Obesity Association, diabetes, increased cholesterol and hypertension.
Types of ischemic cardiopathy
Three types of ischemic heart disease different:
- Acute myocardial infarction
- Unstable angina pectoris
- Stable angina pectoris
- Acute myocardial infarction
It is an acute coronary syndrome. Acute myocardial infarction is a serious disease that occurs due to the blockage of a coronary artery by a thrombus. The final result of the blockage in the artery is death (necrosis) territory of the blocked artery that supplies. Therefore, The importance of myocardial infarction depends on the amount of heart muscle is lost.
Myocardial usually an unexpected event that can occur in healthy people, although it is usually more common in those who have risk factors and in patients who have already suffered another manifestation of ischemic heart disease.
Myocardial manifested by chest pain similar to angina characteristics, but maintained for more than 20 minutes. It may be accompanied by fatigue, sudor frio, mareo o angustia. VA often associated with a sense of gravity, therefore the patient's own perception, as urgent responses that usually results in the healthcare environment that treats. But the absence of this feeling does not exclude its presence. It can occur at rest and not self-limiting.
Necrosis of the territory that remains without blood supply is progressive. The damage increases over time and, once dies portion of heart muscle, is impossible to restore its function. However, damage itself can be interrupted if the myocardium receive blood back through procedures plungers blocked artery.
Thus, is essential that the person with a stroke reach the hospital as soon as possible. Ideally receive attention during the first hour after onset of symptoms. If this is not possible, during the hours following the attack must apply treatments such as thrombolysis (intravenously administered drugs that dissolve the thrombus) o angioplastia (with mechanical recanalization of the obstructed artery catheters).
Sometimes, You can even specify urgent cardiac surgery. The sooner the patient is adhered greater chance of avoiding definitive damage has.
Unstable angina pectoris
It is an acute coronary syndrome. It refers to pain caused by lack of blood supply to the heart cells (myocardial ischemia). Unstable angina is often a sign of very high risk of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death.
Unstable angina is triggered as myocardial, but in this case there is no complete occlusion of the coronary artery by thrombus, and has not reached to produce cardiac cell death.
The unstable angina at rest is manifested by pain or tightness starts in the center of the chest and may spread to arms, neck, jaw and back. Symptoms is equal the infarct, although generally of shorter duration and intensity. This angina should be treated as an emergency, since there is a high risk of a heart attack occur, severe arrhythmia or sudden death
Stable angina pectoris
Also known as chronic ischemic heart disease. Stable angina occurs when coronoario pain occurs due to a constant level of effort for long periods of time. The pain disappears with the cessation of the activity and the administration of nitroglycerin.
- Heart Failure
- Sudden death
- Cardiomyopathy dilatada
- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
- Restrictive cardiomyopathy
- Valvulopatía mitral
- Valvulopatía aortic
- Valvulopatía pulmonar
- Tricuspid valvulopathy
- Infectious Endocarditis