Cardiac surgery takes care of surgical diseases of the heart and great vessels, pulmonary artery that are, the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Despite a seemingly scope reduced, There are many different techniques and approaches for each disease.
Classically, what has characterized the cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass to perform surgery with heart stopped.
Although cardiac surgery is a young specialty, has evolved greatly throughout history. In recent years there is increasing use of minimally invasive techniques in all medical procedures. Cardiac surgery was not going to be less, emphasizing the development of valvular prostheses implanted without cardiopulmonary bypass, as the transapical aortic surgery.
The fundamental fields which deals are:
- Coronary Surgery (bypass or coronary bypass).
- Valve Surgery (replacement and valve repair).
- Surgery of the great vessels (aorta and pulmonary arteries).
- Arrhythmias surgery.
- Heart transplantation and implantation of ventricular assist.
Cardiac surgery also has a role in the treatment of infective endocarditis, a disease that involves the infection of certain parts of the heart, especially its valves.