Hypertension is elevated blood pressure chronically. It is a disease that has no symptoms for a long time and, if left untreated, can lead to severe complications such as myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage or thrombosis, which can be avoided if properly controlled.
The most common mechanism of hypertension is unknown, called “essential hypertension”, “primary” the “Idiopathic”.
- Heritage: when transmitted from parents to children a trend or inherited predisposition to develop high blood pressure levels.
- Sex: Men are more prone to develop high blood pressure than women until they reach the age of menopause.
- Age and race: Age is another factor, unfortunately not modifiable, that will influence the blood pressure, so that both systolic or high blood pressure and diastolic or minimal increase over the years and is logically a greater number of hypertensive patients with increasing age.
- Overweight: overweight individuals are more likely to have higher blood pressure than an individual with normal weight.
The presence of other diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol and obesity also predispose to hypertension.
Causes of secondary hypertension:
The renal causes (2,5-6%) hypertension include renal parenchymal disease and renal vascular diseases, as the following:
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Chronic kidney disease
- Renin-producing tumors
- Liddle syndrome
- Renal artery stenosis
High blood pressure rarely causes symptoms. Being nervous or tense, for example, is not synonymous with having high blood pressure.
Tips for the patient with hypertension:
- Moderate portion sizes caring for the body and avoiding overweight.
- Avoid foods high in sodium (deli, embedded, dressings, products copetín, cheeses, etc.)
- Cooking without adding salt. Replace with parsley, basil, thyme, rosemary and other spices.
- Reduce alcohol intake, in women must be less than 98 week grams (150 ml of wine a day) and the lower men 196 week grams (300 ml of wine a day).
- Add at least 30 MINUTES daily physical activity continuously or accumulated: use ladders, walk, dance, biking, etc..
- Reduce consumption of coffee.
- Eating foods rich in potassium, as legumes, fruits and vegetables.
- Quitting smoking.
- Taking medication as agreed with your doctor.