It occurs when the blood supply to the heart needs to keep running (like any other organ in our body) is not sufficient. It is caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, responsible for watering the heart muscle.
Myocardial infarction occurs when ischemia is prolonged, not reach an adequate blood supply, and cell death occurs (necrosis) myocardial tissue. The heart muscle is left with a permanent scar, This piece of tissue can not contract being disabled. Depending on the size of the affected area and work the heart in different circumstances.
It may be that part of the plate is loose and is transported through the bloodstream to smaller arteries where it can not happen and occlude light. This will produce a sudden and severe ischemia or reduced blood flow causing cell death. It may also happen that a decreased blood supply to the heart due to a hemorrhage occurs elsewhere in the body.
KNOW A HEART ATTACK
Symptoms of myocardial infarction may be different for each person, so when suspected to have one, although not sure, need to see a doctor and make sure your existence or not.
The most common is a sudden pain, more or less intense, in front of the chest that may radiate to the left arm, neck, back, left side, or abdomen. The pain can be increased steadily until it becomes almost unbearable. Along choking feeling pain usually occurs, with short breaths, Sweating, palpitations, nausea and / or vomiting. The pulse can be very fast, irregular, weak, sometimes, imperceptible.
In some cases, no symptoms so clearly presented, diabetic patients are an example, and pain may be less intense. So in suspected myocardial, but uncertain of having it be, need to see a doctor and have to be the one who diagnosed this process or any other.
Treat them early can mean the difference between life and death, so you have to know the steps to be followed in the event of suspected heart attack:
- If you notice any symptoms, sit or lie down.
- If you were previously taking nitroglycerin, take a sublingual tablet.
- If past symptoms persist for several minutes after taking nitroglycerin, emergency telephone call in your city.
- Do not attempt to drive to the hospital, wait for the ambulance.
- When you arrive at the emergency department of the hospital, clearly say ( or a companion) you believe you are suffering a heart attack.
The most common risk factors for heart attacks are:
- The elderly: They are much more common in people over 60 years old.
- Sex: men are more likely to suffer them women.
- Heredity: people who have relatives with a history of having had heart disease, have a higher chance of getting a disease of this type.
DIAGNOSIS OF HEART ATTACK
Diagnosis is made by the physician based on the following data:
- Physical Examination: people with stroke have ashy look, clammy skin. It is frequently present vomiting. Blood pressure decreases to a very low point.
- The patient history: age, everything about your health, family history, etc..
- Electrocardiogram: in two to twelve hours after infarction, electrocardiographic changes that reveal not only the presence but also the site of infarction warn.
- Blood test: increased concentrations of enzymes and isoenzymes in blood when heart cells are injured. The determination of these enzymes is very reliable, and very useful when the patient entered after a while he suffered the heart attack because the electrocardiogram may show no alteration.
Other techniques that are subsequently used to assess the condition of the heart and what kind of impact has are:
- ‘Test’ Stress: assesses how the heart responds to certain physical effort.
- Echocardiography: is the use of ultrasound to get a picture of the heart.
Holter: is to collect for a full day heart rate via a portable device.
- Coronary: is to introduce the veins or arteries a thin tube that goes to the heart. A contrast agents are injected and he can see what artery is blocked and what size is obstruction or how is the ventricle.
The person who has suffered a myocardial infarction should learn to deal with his health in everyday situations. This will seek to improve their health and quality of life.
Factors that can be controlled:
- High cholesterol levels: have to keep a lower figure than 200mg / dl. A 18% of the Spanish population, between 35 and 64 years old, Hypercholesterolemia is less than 250mg / dl and 58% equal to or greater than 200 mg / dl.
- Hypertension: having a voltage exceeding 140/90 creating a risk to suffer angina or myocardial. In the Spanish population aged 35 a 64 years old, the 20% have hypertension.
- Obesity is another factor to consider, because it is proven that there are frequent people who have suffered a cardiac event and who are obese. Overweight forces the heart to work harder, to make an extra effort that can lead to a coronary failure. Besides the lipid will rise.
- Meals should not be bulky nor should eat quickly.
Avoid extremes of heat and cold.
- The snuff: Smokers have twice the risk of cardiovascular disease than nonsmokers. Smoking is a very prevalent factor in Spain, according to the National Health Survey 1997 the prevalence of smoking was 36%.
Lack of exercise and sedentary lifestyles: a daily program of moderate exercise improves physical condition of the person, helps burn calories and maintain good muscle tone.
Should alternate periods of activity with periods of rest.
- La diabetes mellitus, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Alcohol: consume in large quantities is harmful to health. It helps to increase blood pressure, to raise the amount of triglycerides, to cause obesity. Instead take a moderate amount (one glass a day) it is beneficial for cardiovascular patients.
- Stress: accumulate much daily stress is a factor that relates to people suffering heart attacks or have heart related problems.
- Follow your doctor's orders regarding lifestyle and medical treatment.
- The patient should inform the doctor if any symptoms such as dyspnea, swelling of feet and ankles, in the timia, etc..